Kodiak Elk? The (Creative) Commons

I have mentioned before that I am passionate about conservation, one conservation topic that I have become an advocate for since moving to Alaska is the introduction of Roosevelt Elk to Kodiak Island.

Convention wisdom condemn transplanting non native species into closed ecosystems citing that in most cases the non native species will thrive at the expense of the already established species in the ecosystem. This will an imbalance in the available resources and will inevitably lead to a crash that will reduce biodiversity in the ecosystem. These “Nonnative Species” Alaska Department of fish and Game are something to be condemned not encouraged.

While I agree that the introduction of non native species is typically a bad thing Kodiak island lives in constant contradiction. Historically Kodiak island was home to only 6 mammals the ” Kodiak Bear, the red fox, the river otter, the short-tailed weasel, the tundra vole, and the little brown bat.”   Mammals Endemic to Kodiak Island The Sitka Black tailed Deer, Mountain Goats, Bison, and Caribou that reside on the island are all nonnative species introduced to provide hunting opportunities. Kodiak Island Natural History

There have even been failed attempts to introduce Dall Sheep, and moose to the island but the populations never found footing and within a generation were gone. Afognak Elk have been successfully introduced the the neighboring islands of Afognak and Raspberry Island where healthy populations exist. Afognak and Raspberry Island set less than 20 miles form Kodiak and host identical flora and fauna with the exception of the size of the human populations. Roosevelt Elk

The Alaska Department of Fish and Game does not deny the existence of Elk on Kodiak island stating that Elk occasionally make the swim from Afognak to Kodiak. However Improbable it may seem for a hoofed animal to swim 20 miles of open ocean it does happen. But these are young bulls never the cows that would be required to create a breeding population.

Below is a picture I took this spring of a loan bull elk on Kodiak.

With very limited populations already existing on the island and no impending biological collaps I believe that Alaska Deparment of Fish and Game should relocate 5 cow elk from the Afognak heard and relocat them to Kodiak Island in an atempt to establish a breeding population.

The question comes next is why? For this I have 3 reasons. I by establishing a heard of elk on Kodiak we create yet another viable Rosevelt elk population, with the Kodiak heard existing in relative isolation this cold act as a biological bank that could be drawn from if populations ever plummeted in other parts of their range. My second reason is one that makes the world go around… MONEY. Creating a population of Roosevelt Elk on Kodiak would provide another retail opportunity of the people of Kodiak providing an extended tourist season as people come in to take part in the Kodiak elk hunting season. This would also provide additional revenue for wildlife and parks as every non resident that traveled in to Alaska to take part in the Elk season, would need a minimum of $760 in licenses and tags to hunt. ADFG My third reason is a little more selfish but as I hike I love interacting with wildlife and having a population of elk on the island would give me one more opportunity.

So the Kodiak Elk? There is a small population but with relatively few risks to the ecosystem and huge financial up sides I hope to one day see the support of others and with a small strategic introduction of a few cows someday see the Kodiak elk population grow.

Creative Commons License


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Justification and Scenarios

I chose to licence my work Kodiak Elk? While many of the other works I have created for this class may have a more creative twist they were largely completed with the end goal of leaning how to use an unfamiliar technology. Kodiak Elk? on the other hand was created with the intention to create sport for something that I feel passionate about. I chose to licence the work purely under Attribution, allowing for commercial applications, derivatives and sharing of adapted works. The reason I chose to licence the work this way has to do with the intent of the work. I would like to see a non native species introduced to a limited environment. This view is not widely accepted or even discuses. Through licencing the work only through Attribution I give others free reign to adapt and distribute the work how they see fit. My thought is that the more people how see the work in any form, the more the topic of introducing elk to Kodiak can become part of an every day conversation.

A scenario for a proper use for this work would be its adaptation and reprinting in a in newspaper or magazine. If an outdoor journalist found my write up and wanted to use any part of the text or my image to make their own point or use my photo or edit my photo in any way as part of an article that they would then sell for profit they would be allowed to just so long as they attributed the original photo or text to me.

An improper use would be if someone we to take my photo edit it and print it on a t-shirt for sale to the public without attributing the photograph to me. In this scenario the individual would have essentially violated the only rule of my licence, that being that I be credited as the original author of the work.

Collaborate (a little)

As seen by Sam Starr, Abdulallah Arbabzadah, Deana Waters, and Maureen Clay

Small Group Communication Factors

  1. The most important goal for a group in this class would be to complete the stated task(s).
  2. Groups are most productive when a leader steps forward to run meetings and allocate tasks.
  3. We should have a high degree of tolerance for group members who are late to synchronous meetings or do not attend due to other obligations.
  4. Creating friendships and completing the group task are equally important.
  5. Criticizing other group members should be avoided.
  6. Avoiding smaller conflicts is the best method to reduce conflict escalation.
  7. All group members should have identical goals and reasons for being involved.
  8. Majority rule is the best method of group decision making.
  9. If one group member is not pulling his or her weight, the other group members should confront that person together.
  10. Everyone in the group should receive the same grade for group projects.

Revised statements:

  1. The goal that a group in the class should focus on would be to complete the stated task(s) (by Abdulallah)
  2. Groups accomplish the most when one person steps in to lead meetings and divide tasks (by Abdulallah) ORIGINAL: Groups are most productive when a leader steps forward to run meetings and allocate tasks.
  3. We should allow for sometimes group members being late to synchronous meetings or do not attend due to previously scheduled matters. (by Abdulallah) ORIGINAL: We should have a high degree of tolerance for group members who are late to synchronous meetings or do not attend due to other obligations.
  4. The primary concern of group work should be collectively completing the assignment. Forming professional contacts is a valuable side effect of productive group work.(Sam)
  5. Constructive criticism between group members should be encouraged. Through questioning each others way of thinking we dive deeper into understanding the work and build off of each others strengths. (Sam)
  6. Confronting smaller conflicts as they occur is a good method to reduce conflict escalation. (Deana)
  7. Group members should acknowledge that others may have other goals and reasons for being involved. (Deana)
  8. When time is a factor majority rule from the group might be the best method for decision making, however, a consensus from the group would be appropriate if time is available for a collective agreement. (Maureen)
  9.  If a group member is not pulling his or her weight, speak to them directly and immediately about the task. (Maureen)
  10. Everyone in the group should receive the same grade for group projects. (Maureen)

Reasons why we revised each statement: 

  1. There is no most important goal now. There is only a goal in mind, and that is completing the stated tasks.
  2. Mostly just a change in language. Should be left the same.
  3. Same as above. 
  4. We are all busy, with work, families and other classes. While we are not opposed to the idea of friendship our primary concern is to complete group work as efficiently as possible. If we form professional relationships as a result that is an added bonus. 
  5. Groupthink is a dangerous thing, through encouraging constructive criticism of group members we protect against groupthink while ensuring that everyone provides their best work.  
  6. Addressing smaller conflicts as they occur is important.  All concerns should at least be acknowledged by the group.  If the concern affects the overall goal of the group, and time allows, the group should try to resolve the concern.  Ignoring what may seem “petty” or insignificant to the group invalidates what may be a sincere concern by another group member.  By ignoring the concern, the aggrieved member may perceive that he/she is not valued and his/her input is not important. Also, unaddressed concerns or growing discontent will build up and eventually implode and cause divisive turmoil within the group, making it less functional and effective.  
  7. Not all group members have the same goals.  Each member brings his/her own particular strength to the whole.  Some members may be content experts while others are the technical gurus.  Some may have genuine altruistic motives to be in the group and others may be more motivated by personal gain or recognition.  While each member may have individual goals or reasons for being in the group, every member should be valued for his/her contributions and willingness to work toward the identified goal and purpose.  
  8. If there is not enough time for the whole group to decide on a decision for a group project then a vote can be made and the majority vote can determine what is done.  If the project allows more time and the whole group does not agree on a decision then discussion and more collaboration can be done so that the group can come up with a consensus. 
  9.  If a team member is not pulling their weight then they should be talked to immediately.  Often times it seems like people get more frustrated and don’t actually confront the person about not helping and pulling their weight.
  10.  This statement was not changed.   

As a group we decided to address this project in fairly asynchronous was. We exchanged messages though a group message on Twitter once we had our group established and agreed on a google doc as our medium Abdulallah created a google doc and sent everyone invitations we divided up the statements and began working individually. After everyone had finished their statements each group member reviewed the document. Once everyone had a chance to review the document we agreed that we were ready to post our work. As far as group creativity goes we only scratched the surface with this project but part of the challenge is getting a group together. Now that we have a group I am sure we will address future group work with greater creativity.

Fair(ish) Use

The recurring them in many of my posts has been conservation, instead of out write teaching you about conservation I am instead going to design a short assignment that will use fair use works and challenge you to think about your own conservation efforts.

The need for conservation of wild resources is a difficult idea to spread. Most people would agree that preserving wild places is a good thing but in a consumption driven society when faced with the reality of sacrificing convenience versus promoting conservation most people choose convenience. Creating social change on a wide scale requires people to support wild lands that have never experienced their majesty and hear lies the problem. How do we get an urban consumer concerned enough with conservation of environments they have never seen to enact changes in their own life?

For the last 100 years or so the answer to this has been Art. Art Specifically photography has provided the opportunity to bring raw real images of places that few visit to the masses. These Images captured go far beyond just pictures. Their use of light, and subject matter elicit such strong emotions that even those who have never seen these wild places feel the need to act to protect them.

See the source image

https://kaylsas.wordpress.com/2012/10/03/ansel-adams-environmental-folk-hero/
Image result for Paul Nicklen
https://www.brecorder.com/2017/03/25/340206/emperor-penguins-by-paul-nicklen/
See the source image
https://neileverosborne.com/2-neo-smithsonian-magazine-bear-essentials/

Observe how these images from Ansel Adams, Paul Nicklen, and Neil Even Osborn transport you to wild places. Just for taking in the image you can feel the chill in the air. Images like these when paired with a powerful call to action serve as a powerful tool in generating support for conservation. We will never be able to bring every one to wild lands but through these images we can bring the wild lands to them. My challenge is to go out and find you own image. Using your setting and the resources around you see if you can also capture an image powerful enough to generate support for conservation just as these 3 artists have done.

Fair Use

While this might not have been the most risky use of fair use distracting these images to my class without the artists consent did require me to check that I was appropriately using fair use. Looking at a four part fair use check list this use was covered. First the purpose of distributing the images was for teaching. The Nature of the work was published. For the Amount I did provide the whole image with is somewhat of a grey area when it comes to visual art. I limited use to just one image from each artists portfolio to avoid over distributing their work. For effect I found that distributing these images to my class would have no significant effect on the images ability to be sold. Over all I cam to the conclusion that distributing these images landed on the pro free use side of every factor and that using them in the classroom would be protected.

Making Sense of Copyright

1709: The Statute of Anne

http://www.historyofinformation.com/detail.php?entryid=3389

The Statute of Anne enacted in England starts the copyright ball in motion as it was the first time copyright had been protected by law. The Statute of Anne granted publishers of books protection for 14 years after publishing and 21 years for books already published. Copyrighted works were deposited in copyright libraries. There was no automatic copyright protection.

1790: The Copyright act of 1790

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright_Act_of_1790

The Copyright act of 1790 was very similar to the Statute of Anne but was the first copyright legislation to be enacted in America.

1886: The Berne Convention

The Berne Convention was the first international copyright protection. The Berne Convention Automatically provides copyright protection for works published in all member countries. The Berne Convention extended protection to unpublished works and removed the need to register works in order to receive copyright protection.

1834: Wheaton v. Peters

https://www.copyright.gov/timeline/timeline_19th_century.html

Forty years after The Copy Right Act of 1790 the United States saw their first Supreme Court decision regarding Copyright law. The court ruled that “the Court established that Congress had the power to require conditions for copyright, that common-law copyright did not exist in published works, and that no one could copyright court opinions but could copyright summaries or the opinions of others.”

1909: The Copyright Act of 1909

https://government-programs.laws.com/copyright-act-of-1909

“The 1909 Act granted protection to works published with a valid copyright notice affixed on copies. Accordingly, unpublished works were protected by state copyright law but published works without proper notice fell into the public domain. The copyright term remained at 28 years with a renewal term of 28 years, but the author was granted the right to terminate any transfer of his copyright between the initial and renewal term.”

1976: The Copyright Act of 1976

https://www.copyright.gov/timeline/timeline_1950-1997.html

“The term of copyright protection for new works was greatly altered, from a term of years with a renewal period, to the life of the author plus fifty years. Accordingly, the right to terminate between the initial term and the renewal term fell away, and was replaced with the right to terminate transfer after 35 years, subject to certain procedures.”

1998: Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)

https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Digital-Millennium-Copyright-Act-DMCA

DMCA was created in an attempt to address challenges with regulating copyright and new digital technologies. This brought the United State Copyright Laws into compliance with international copyright organizations such as the World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty.

2014 and 2017: Compendium

https://www.copyright.gov/comp3/revisions.html

While There has not been another copyright act since DMCA two comprehensive reviews and revisions of existing copyright lay have been completed, the most recent in 2017. The driving purpose of these reviews and revisions is to provide clarity on procedures, keep copyright law up to date with changing technologies, and to ensure continued protection of artists and writers.

Think About Your Thinking

I have faced a lot of challenges in this collection as I have forced myself to work with new and unfamiliar technology. I have learned a lot and have adapted my ways of thinking but what has by far been the most difficult has been engaging with other classmates and finding people who wanted to work together on a group project. With Our only clear cut means of communication being twitter I started following everyone in the class with a week and a half left in the collecting. Only 3 of those people followed me back and it want until Thursday that I found two other people willing to collaborate. In comparison tho the 2 to 3, sometimes 4 hours it typically takes me to do an assignment taking a week and a half to engage with classmates was daunting. Once we had created a group we exchanged dozens of messages deciding what to do and how we would all contribute. For anyone in future classes wanting to collaborate with classmates my recommendation would be to start early, with everyone having a tenancy to go it alone in this type of class format finding teammates takes work!

Kodiak Elk?

Image result for image of afognak elk

I have mentioned before that I am passionate about conservation, one conservation topic that I have become an advocate for since moving to Alaska is the introduction of Roosevelt Elk to Kodiak Island.

Convention wisdom condemn transplanting non native species into closed ecosystems citing that in most cases the non native species will thrive at the expense of the already established species in the ecosystem. This will an imbalance in the available resources and will inevitably lead to a crash that will reduce biodiversity in the ecosystem. These “Nonnative Species” Alaska Department of fish and Game are something to be condemned not encouraged.

While I agree that the introduction of non native species is typically a bad thing Kodiak island lives in constant contradiction. Historically Kodiak island was home to only 6 mammals the ” Kodiak Bear, the red fox, the river otter, the short-tailed weasel, the tundra vole, and the little brown bat.”   Mammals Endemic to Kodiak Island The Sitka Black tailed Deer, Mountain Goats, Bison, and Caribou that reside on the island are all nonnative species introduced to provide hunting opportunities. Kodiak Island Natural History

There have even been failed attempts to introduce Dall Sheep, and moose to the island but the populations never found footing and within a generation were gone. Afognak Elk have been successfully introduced the the neighboring islands of Afognak and Raspberry Island where healthy populations exist. Afognak and Raspberry Island set less than 20 miles form Kodiak and host identical flora and fauna with the exception of the size of the human populations. Roosevelt Elk

The Alaska Department of Fish and Game does not deny the existence of Elk on Kodiak island stating that Elk occasionally make the swim from Afognak to Kodiak. However Improbable it may seem for a hoofed animal to swim 20 miles of open ocean it does happen. But these are young bulls never the cows that would be required to create a breeding population.

Below is a picture I took this spring of a loan bull elk on Kodiak.

With very limited populations already existing on the island and no impending biological collaps I believe that Alaska Deparment of Fish and Game should relocate 5 cow elk from the Afognak heard and relocat them to Kodiak Island in an atempt to establish a breeding population.

The question comes next is why? For this I have 3 reasons. I by establishing a heard of elk on Kodiak we create yet another viable Rosevelt elk population, with the Kodiak heard existing in relative isolation this cold act as a biological bank that could be drawn from if populations ever plummeted in other parts of their range. My second reason is one that makes the world go around… MONEY. Creating a population of Roosevelt Elk on Kodiak would provide another retail opportunity of the people of Kodiak providing an extended tourist season as people come in to take part in the Kodiak elk hunting season. This would also provide additional revenue for wildlife and parks as every non resident that traveled in to Alaska to take part in the Elk season, would need a minimum of $760 in licenses and tags to hunt. ADFG My third reason is a little more selfish but as I hike I love interacting with wildlife and having a population of elk on the island would give me one more opportunity.

So the Kodiak Elk? There is a small population but with relatively few risks to the ecosystem and huge financial up sides I hope to one day see the support of others and with a small strategic introduction of a few cows someday see the Kodiak elk population grow.

Work Together

For our work together project Liz, Deana, and I decided to build off of the experience that I had got using Magisto in the first collection and make a group video. As this project didn’t require any face to face interaction we worked together using Twitter and email. We decided that we would make a video showing what summer time in Alaska looked like surrounding our homes in our respective geographic location. We each filmed between 30 seconds and a minute worth of footage on our phone and then shared them using google drive. Once I had everyone’s videos I through them together using Magisto’s editing software and sent everyone in the group the link. I have looked everywhere I can think to but have not been able to find a free way to embed a Magisto video so we shared it as a link. Hope everyone enjoys!

Make and Share 2

My wife is a big fan of Selfies so over the course of a year I end up with dozens of them on my phone. I wanted to do something with them so I decide I would kill two birds with one stone making a picture collage that she will enjoy and create a make and share at the same time. Like all of my great creation endeavors I started my with a google search and found that most recommended using a free picture collage generator so downloaded the pictures I wanted to use off my phone and tried smilebox as a free collage generator. You create an account chose a template and and then upload your photos, all super easy and then when you try to download the collage it explains that making collages and sharing them to social media is free but everything else costs a subscription fee. So I continued my search and found befunky which led true to its claim of being a free picture collage maker. I uploaded my photos, was able to drag and drop them into locations and save the collage to my desktop. I uploaded here and emailed it to my wife, we will see what she thinks!

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